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Rocks: Chapter 2, Section 1 Notes

March 20, 2015

Chapter 2, Section 1 Notes – The Rock Cycle

A. The Value of Rock

            1. Rocks are naturally occurring solids that are made up of minerals.

            2. Rocks are solids that are always changing

            3. Humans use rocks for tools, buildings, roads, and monuments.

            4. Rocks have been used in time periods of ancient civilizations.

In summary…

            Rocks are naturally occurring solids made up of minerals that are always changing. Rocks have been used in ancient civilizations and presently used in tools, buildings, roads, and monuments.

            1. Rock cycle is the process that changes old rocks into new rocks.

            2. Some of the other changes for rocks include becoming magma or sediments.

            3. Rocks can change into sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks as part of the rock cycle.

            4. The processes in rock cycles include melting, erosion, weather, cooling, solidification, metamorphism, and so on.

In summary…

            The rock cycle is a process that changes old rock into new rock. The processes are melting, erosion, weathering, cooling, solidification, and metamorphism to name a few. Rock can change into sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic rock as well as also become magma or sediments.

B. Process that Shape the Earth

            1. Weathering

                        a. process in which water, wind, ice, and heat break down rock is weathering

                        b. glaciers help to weather rocks

                        c. rocks are broken down into fragments or sediments

                        d. this is a process that takes a long time

                        e. sediments can help form sedimentary rocks


            2. Erosion and Uplift

                        a. water, wind, ice, and gravity erodes and moves sediment

                        b. sediment is removed from the surface of the rock that has been weathered

                        c. movement within the Earth causes rocks inside the Earth to be moved to the

                           Earth’s surface

                        d. the process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports oil and sediment

                        from one location to another

            3. Deposition

                        a. the process in which material is laid down or deposited

                        b. sediment is moved by erosion and rests in a specific place

                        c. sediment can be deposited into bodies of water and low-lying areas

                        d. sediment can be deposited into layers

            4. Heat and Pressure

                        a. this process forms sedimentary rock by squeezing buried sediment by the

                        weight of the overlying layers

                        b. high temperature and pressure can form metamorphic rock

                        c. cooling of magma forms intrusive or extrusive igneous rocks

                        d. rocks can get hot enough to melt into magma that cools to form igneous rock

C. Round and Round It Goes

            1. Each rock type can change into one of the three types of rocks.

            2. Rocks follow various pathways in the rock cycle.

3. Location of rock determines which natural forces have the biggest influence on the process of change.

4. Deep within Earth is affected by heat and pressure.

5. At the surface of Earth is affected by forces of weathering and erosion.

D. Rock Classification

            1. Rocks can be divided into three based on how rocks form.

            2. Igneous rocks are formed based on how and where it forms. Some form when

              magma cools on Earth’s surface or deep beneath the surface.

            3. Classify rocks using criteria of composition and texture.

            4. Composition: Minerals rocks contain (or chemical makeup) determines composition.

            5. Texture: Size, shape, and position of grains that makeup a rock determines its texture.

                        a. Either be fine-grained, medium-grained, or coarse-grained

                        b. Texture depends on the size of the grains

                        c. Igneous rock: fine-grain or coarse-grained depending on the length time

                         of cooling

                        d. Metamorphic rock: fine-grained or coarse-grained depending on degree of

                             temperature and pressure

            6. Texture provide clues as to how and where rocks form

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