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Chapter 4, Section 4 Notes

January 21, 2015

Chapter 4, Section 4 Phases of Moon Notes

1. The moon continues to change appearances.

2. Different appearances result from the changing position of moon relative to earth and the sun.

3. Sunlight on the moon side that faces the Earth changes as moon revolves.

4. Different appearances of moon due to changing position is called a phase.

5. Waxing – the fraction of the moon that is seen on Earth is getting larger.

6. Waning – the fraction of the moon that is seen on Earth is getting smaller.

7. Phases of the moon

  • Full Moon
  • Waxing Gibbous
  • First quarter
  • Waxing crescent
  • New moon
  • Waning crescent
  • Last quarter
  • Waning gibbous


Chapter 4, Section 4

Moon Notes


Satellites are the natural or artificial bodies that revolve around larger bodies like planets.



Earth’s moons is also called Luna.



Rock from Apollo mission appeared to be about 4.6 billion years old.



All planets, except Mercury and Venus, have moons.



Age of the moon is determined by rate of cratering (number of craters since the birth of the solar system).



Current theory of how the moon formed is that a large mars-sized object collided with Earth as it was still forming. This collision caused part of the mantle to blast into orbit and formed the moon.



One theory: The moon was a separate body captured by gravity.



Second theory: The moon formed at the same time and from the same material as the Earth.



Third theory: The newly formed Earth was spinning so fast that a piece flew off and became the moon.








When the shadow of one celestial body falls on another, an eclipse occurs.



Solar eclipse: The moon comes between the Earth and sun to create a shadow of the moon on part of Earth.



Annular Eclipse: The moon is farther from Earth.



Lunar Eclipse: The atmosphere bends sunlight into Earth’s shadow causing blue light to be filtered out and leaves red light. This causes the moon to appear red.



We don’t see solar and lunar eclipses every month because moon’s orbit around Earth is tilted.


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